Original Article

Heuristics evaluation and development of the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA)-kids application for caries management of preschoolers

Yu-Min Kang   Su-Young Lee1,*   

1Department of Dental Hygiene, The Graduate School of Namseoul University
2Department of Dental Hygiene, Namseoul University


Objectives: This study aimed to develop the CAMBRA-kids application for the systematic management of dental caries among preschoolers, activate the dental caries management system, and contribute to the dental caries management of preschoolers. Methods: The collected data were analyzed using R studio 1.2.1335 for Windows (RStudio Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2018). Algorithm evaluation, heuristic evaluation and usability evaluation were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Both expert evaluations of the application’s algorithms were calculated as 100%, for proficiency and efficiency. The application worked well with the designed algorithms, the risk group level of participants was categorized appropriately, and the risk management method was guided properly according to the risk group level. Of the five problems presented in the heuristic evaluation, 'the lack of security' and 'the lack of information on oral health care' received 'high severity' scores. The usability evaluation of the application produces an overall score of 3.27. In the subscales (participation, functionality, aesthetics, and information) of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), the 'participation' domain received the lowest score of 2.56 and the 'functional' domain received the highest score of 3.70. Conclusions: The CAMBRA-kids application is expected to be applied and used in the field of preschoolers’ oral health care management, and to contribute to the prevention of dental caries of preschoolers by activating the dental caries management system using the application.

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1. Equation of the proficiency and efficiency